Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), which is characterized by the growth of tubercles (a small rounded projection specially formed in the bone or on the surface of an animal) in lung. It usually affect the lungs, but also affects other parts of body such as brain, kidney, and spine. There are two types of tuberculosis: latent tuberculosis and active tuberculosis. The condition in which bacteria remain in an inactive state and cause no symptoms is called latent tuberculosis. The condition in which bacteria are in active state and show symptoms is called active tuberculosis. Chronic cough with blood containing sputum, fever, and night sweat are some symptoms of active tuberculosis.
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Tuberculosis is a contagious disease which spreads through air. Diagnosis of active tuberculosis is done through chest X-rays and microscopic examination of culture body fluids. Latent tuberculosis diagnosis is done through tuberculin skin test or blood test. People with prolonged and close contact with tuberculosis infected people, already suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and have weak immune system are particularly at high risk of developing tuberculosis. According to the World Health Organization, 10.4 million people are infected with tuberculosis globally i.e., 28,500 people/day and 1.8 million people have died from tuberculosis, including 400,000 with HIV positive tuberculosis i.e., 4,900/day. Tuberculosis is among the top 10 causes of death globally.
Based on test, the tuberculosis diagnostic market has been segmented into diagnostic laboratory method (culture based tests, nucleic acid testing, serological tests, interferon-gamma release assays, phage-based tests, and others) and radiographic method (chest X-ray). The diagnostic laboratory method segment holds significant market share because it is cost effective and easy to perform as compared to radiographic method. However, compromised accuracy and longer processing time are factors that restrain the diagnostic test method segment. Hence healthcare industries are looking for the advanced technique to overcome from the problem of diagnostic laboratory. Advances in X-ray systems, especially mobile radiography and portable equipment such as Practix 400 Plus, are likely to fuel the growth of the tuberculosis diagnostic market.
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Increase in morbidity and mortality rate and high unmet needs to current diagnostic tools such as no rapid test available to detect the resistance of anti-tuberculosis drugs(rifampin and isoniazide), no rapid test available to detect the latent tuberculosis , and other than DNA there is no good biomarker are the opportunities that boosts the tuberculosis diagnostic market. However, most of the tests require a good quantity of sputum which some patients are unable to produce. Moreover, high cost of diagnosis and requirement of highly developed infrastructure to perform the diagnostic tests are the major factors restraining the market.
Geographically, Asia Pacific dominated the global tuberculosis diagnostic market because of large patient pool (about 60% of the world’s population). According to the World Health Organization, countries such as China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, and South Africa are affected with tuberculosis. Increase in awareness about the disease, better purchasing power, and developed health care infrastructure boost the growth of the tuberculosis diagnostic market in North America. Affordability issues, lack of availability of diagnostic tools, and poor patient education are factors restraining the market in Middle East & Africa.
Key players in the tuberculosis diagnostic market include Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Hologic Company, Alere, Inc., F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Becton, Dickinson and Company, bioMérieux SA, Hain Lifescience GmbH, Sanofi S.A., Cepheid Inc., and QIAGEN.
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